The Matrix of Ancient History

An introduction to the criticism of history and chronology

© Christopher Pfister

online edition 2016

frunberg@gmail.com

Title of the printed book: Die Matrix der alten Geschichte. Eine Einführung in die Geschichts- und Chronologiekritik; Norderstedt 2013.  ISBN: 978-3-8423-8617-4


See also: A manifesto to clarify historical criticism

See also: The origin of the name AMERICA

Note to the reader:

These following elements in English of the abovementioned book are designed to give a first impression of its contents, and to serve as a basis for a future translation.

Cover text

Our past is divided into two parts: history and prehistory. We know the former, the second we think we know. But what is ancient history called? The Bible, the Greeks, the Romans, the Middle Ages, the Reformation, the modern age, are all myths and legends, written from a certain time afterwards - a textbook, a matrix. Nobody can stop the realization that world history with its contents and dates become credible only towards the end of the 18th century. This book examines all the important aspects of the new and fascinating theme of the critique of history and chronology.


Jan Hooft
Landscape with church and bell tower
Oil on panel, 39 x 52 cm
To be set after critical considerations to the 1770s
Formerly owned by the Kings of Naples
Swiss private property



 

The Crusader fortress Krak des Chevaliers in Syria seen from the northwest
from:
Paul Deschamps
Romanik im
Heiligen Land
Burgen und Kirchen der Kreuzfahrer
Würzburg 1992


The Dionysus child in the arms of a nymph
from:
Henri Stierlin
The Roman Empire
Köln 1996, 43

Wall painting from an ancient villa of the Farnesina in Rome.
Supposedly "Augustan age". - In fact, at
the earliest it has to be set at the beginning of the 18th century.
(Museo Nazionale Romano o delle Terme, Roma)


Notices

AC means ANTE CHRISTUM = before Christ

AD means ANNO DOMINI = year of our Lord


The philological principle of devocalization

For the purpose of philological and historical analysis you have to free the words from its vowels. In ancient times only the consonants were important (like f.e. in hebrew language).

Examples:

Troja, TROJAM ( always take the accusative case, because it is most used) = Troy

These letters freed of vowels can be revocalized with any vowels.

Example:

TRM = TERRAM, terra = earth, land

The three consonants can also be read backwards:

TRM > MRT

Revocalized it results for example:

MRT = MORTEM, mors = death

MRT = MARTYREM, martyr = martyr

Another important example:

America, AMERICAM = MRCM = MARCUM, Marcus = Mark (Saint Mark)

See the article The origin of the name America.



Contents

The theme of ancient history

Doubts about history

Absurdities in ancient history

About the history of historical criticism

The analytical approach of Fomenko

Own methods and approaches

The emergence of Western culture in the 18th century

*

 Materials for a reconsideration of ancient history

The issue with the Christian era

Scaliger, Calvisius and Petavius

Sinn names from Vespasian to Luther

Terms and geographical names

The overstretched historical construction

Old art and technology

About the ancient Romans

Rome between the Middle Ages and modern times

Pompeii, Vesuvius and Pompeian Art

A cataclysm at the end of the Roman period?

When was the Gothic, when the Romanesque?

Ancient Greece between the Franks and the Turks

Greece, Thrace, Anatolia and Palestine in Western Europe

Byzantium, Constantinople, Istanbul

The castles of the Crusaders

Trojan lion sculptures

Christian, Oriental and Solomonic architecture

*

The source issue or the beginning of literacy in the 18th century

The sources and their age

Manuscripts and printed books

Papyrus, parchment and paper

The perverse "medieval" font development

Textual tradition: belief in the absurd

"Medieval" illumination

Documents: Truth on parchment?

Coins and inscriptions

Counterfeiting in the Middle Ages?

*

 Matrix structures and parallels in ancient history

Petrarca, Dante and Thomas Aquinas: premature thinkers

Ancient and medieval writers and artists and their modern parallels

The simple matrix

The cycle of legends of Troy

Jesus and his doppelgangers

Historical numerology

Numerological constructions

Conquests of Rome

Empire separations

The seven kings of Rome by Livy

Athens and Sparta

The plebeians, Hannibal, Pyrrhus, Scipio, the Gracchi, Rienzo and Spartacus

Marius, Sulla, Diocletian, Saul, Solon, Sertorius, Pompei the Great

The parallels between Cicero and Demosthenes

Roman Emperors

The punitive Severer

The emperors of Vesuvius

Barbarian kings

The kings of the Ostrogoths

The invention of the Alemanni and the Franks

The legendary Roman-German Empire

King Solomon and his doppelgangers

Frederick II of Hohenstaufen

When were the Crusades?

The names of the English royal families

Nicaea and Konstanz

Babylon, Nineveh, Avignon, Pisa

Schism instead of Reformation

The outdated paradigm

*

Literature


Illustrations

Figure 1: The goddess Nike. Wall painting from the "House of Augustus" on the Palatine in Rome

Figure 2: The Stork column (le Cigognier) in Avenches (Aventicum), Switzerland

Figure 3: Fomenko: The parallels between the kings of the kingdom of Israel in the Old Testament and the rulers of late Rome

Figure 4: The Arch of Triumph of Septimius Severus at the Roman Forum in Rome

Figure 5: The Gallo-Roman Temple I on the Enge peninsula in Berne with the Giles Chapel

Figure 6: Plan comparison between the Pantheon in Rome (above) and the Teatro Marittimo of Hadrian's Villa in Tivoli (below)

Figure 7: The so-called Arch of Titus in Rome

Figure 8: Rome: Cityscape of Giambattista Falda, "1676" (detail), with the Coliseum and the Roman Forum (Campo Vaccino)

Figure 9: Plan of Pompeii

Figure 10: Still life of Italian Renaissance or Pompeian: Caravaggio: fruit basket (above) - Villa in Oplontis in Pompeii: fig basket (below)

Figure 11: Italian or Pompeian Renaissance: Titian: Lying courtesan (above) and lying maenad from Pompeii (below)

Figure 12: The Battle of Alexander from Pompeii

Figure 13 A: The Battle of Jammertal (Schilling, Berne)

Figure 13 B: Image comparison between the Battle of Laupen (Schilling, Berne) (detail) and the Battle of Alexander (detail) from Pompeii

Figure 14: Facade comparison between the Gothic cathedral of Famagusta in Cyprus and the Gothic cathedral of Reims

Figure 15: Tower of the Gothic Cathedral of Freiburg (Fribourg), Switzerland

Figure 16: Strasburg in Alsace with his Munster in a figure from the chronicle of Hartmann Schedel

Figure 17: The Gothic monastery Notre-Dame d'Isova on Morea (Peloponnese)

Figure 18: The Acropolis of Athens in a photo from 1865

Figure 19: The remaining columns of the Olympieion in Athens

Figure 20: Comparison plan: Hagia Sophia (Ayasofya) (top) and the Mosque of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent (Suleymaniye) (below) in Constantinople - Istanbul

Figure 21: Knight hall in the Gothic style in the Crusader castle Krak des Chevaliers in Syria

Figure 22: The Marble Lion of Stavros (Kantza) near Athens

Figure 23; The re-erected Lion of Chaeronea (Heronia) in Boeotia (Viotia), Greece

Figure 24: Comparison between the plans of Castel del Monte (Apulia) (top) and Vailly-sur-Sauldre (Cher) (below)

Figure 25 A: The round tower (donjon) of Coucy (Aisne)

Figure 25 B: The top of the round tower (donjon) of Coucy (Aisne)

Figure 26: The Herodion (Arabic Jebel Fureidis), south of Jerusalem in Palestine

Figure 27: Comparison between the Roman Forum of Gerasa (Jerash) in Jordan and St. Peter's Square in Rome

Figure 28: "Medieval" Illumination: Duc de Berry: Les très riches heures: Paris (detail)

Figure 29: Decoration of Villard de Honnecourt: cheek of a choir stall

Figure 30: Gold coins with portraits of Emperor Vespasianus (top) and Titus (below)

Figure 31: The Castle of Noli on the Riviera di Ponente (Italy)

Figure 32: Fomenko: The parallels between the rulers of the Holy Roman Empire in the High Middle Ages and the kings of the kingdom of Judah in the Old Testament

Figure 33: Mosaic medallion from Hinton Saint-Mary (Dorset, England)

Figure 34: Monumental head of a bishop from the Bernese sculptures fund

Figure 35: Lion relief in the form of the coat of arms of Acre (Israel)


 Tables

Table 1: Data of great events of world history according to Petavius

Table 2: Geographical names in the east and west

Table 3: Ancient and medieval writers and their modern parallels

Table 4: The four main parallel stories of the Trojan War

Table 5: The parallels between the Trojan War and the history between Israelites and Benjamin in the Book of Judges (Chapter 19 and 20) from the Old Testament

Table 6: Jesus' doppelgangers

Table 7: The parallels between Jesus and St. Basil the Great

Table 8: Numerological constructions

Table 9: Conquests of Rome

Table 10: Empire separations

Table 11: The seven Roman kings according to Tite Live

Table 12: The parallels between the rulers Sulla, Solon, Saul and Diocletian

Table 13: The parallels between Cicero and Demosthenes

Table 14: The parallels between Caligula, Caracalla, Elegabal

Table 15: Severer parallels

Table 16: Emperors of Vesuvius

Table 17: The kings of the Ostrogoths

Table 18: Solomonic rulers



Figure 1: The goddess Nike. Wall painting from the "House of Augustus" on the Palatine in Rome

From: Gianfilippo Carettoni: Das Haus des Augustus auf dem Palatin

Mainz 1983

Official dating: „Augustan era“. – According to the author: the first half of the 18th century.


 Figure 2: The Stork column (le Cigognier) in Avenches (Aventicum); Vaud, Switzerland

Photo: author, 22.7.2000

This is the only Roman column north of the Alps still standing. In the author's opinion they left the column standing on purpose.


The theme of ancient history

Doubts about history

History as knowledge may arouse conflicting feelings. Man perhaps thinks of dusty archives, old walls and pretentious museum halls. - From history as a branch in school most people may have bad memories such as meaningless memorization of dates and insignificant contents. - And history per se seems to be a series of atrocities, with only a few bright spots.

Then there are and witticisms and bonmots about history. It is said that history proves that people will never learned nothing from history. - And from historians they say that they are backward-looking prophets.

One may ask, if pursuing history makes any sense at all.

Friedrich Nietzsche wrote an excellent viewing Vom Nutzen und Nachteil der Historie für das Leben (The Use and Abuse of History for Life), criticizing history as a matter hostile to life. Would not it be better to abolish this field of knowledge at all? - The famous auto pioneer Henry Ford commented briefly: History is bunk.


Figure 3: Fomenko: The parallels between the kings of the biblical kingdom of Israel and the rulers of Late Rome

 from: A.T. Fomenko: History: Fiction or Science, vol. 2, Paris, etc. 2005, p. 32.

Remastered by the author.


Figure 4: The Arch of Triumph of Septimius Severus at the Roman Forum in Rome

Sketch by Claude Lorrain

This sketch shows the Arch of Triumph of Septimius Severus at the Roman Forum in Rome. Note the Capitol Hill in the background.

What is intriguing is that the arch stands in the water. How did this happen? Was Rome hit by a catastrophic flood at a certain time?

Additionally, Lorrain shows the arch with only one passage, instead of three.

Lorrain's sketch is to be put in the 1760s (revised dating)..


Figure 5: The Gallo-Roman temple I on the Enge peninsula in Berne with the Giles Chapel

Graphics: author

On this map we see a medieval gothic chapel superimposed on the foundations of a Gallo-Roman quadrangular temple.

The time gap between the ancient and the medieval structure, however, is to be considered small - between one or two decades.

The Giles chapel was demolished after about 1760 - 1770 (revised dating).


 

Figure 6: Plan-comparison between the Pantheon in Rome (above) and the Teatro Marittimo in Hadrian's Villa in Tivoli (below)

from: Henri Stierlin: The Roman Empire; Köln 1996, 154, 174

The two circular buildings have the same diameter. So they are to be considered built at the same period.


Figure 7: The so-called Arch of Titus in Rome

Painting by Gaspar Van Wittel, end of the 18th century

from: Luigi Salerno: I pittori di vedute in Italia; Roma 1991, 80

The picture represents the old aspect of the triumphal arch, before its restoration in 1820.


Figure 8: Rome: Cityscape of Giambattista Falda, "1676" (detail), with the Coliseum and the Roman Forum (Campo Vaccino)

from: Leonhard von Matt: Rom, vol. 1; Zürich 1950

The illustration is to be set towards 1790, not in "1676"


Figure 9: Map of Pompeii

Graphics: author

This rough drawing of the town of Pompeii shows a sort of urbanoglyph, a hidden image behind the apparent structure: The older town (brown) represents the head of a dog. The new town (blue) shows clearly a fish with the amphitheatre as mouth. The net structure of the city streets symbolizes a fisherman's net. - Pompeii had at its time access to the sea (left on this map), it was a seaside city, like Naples or Troy.


Figure 10: Still life of Pompeian or Italian Renaissance: Villa in Oplontis in Pompeii: Fig basket (above) - Caravaggio: Fruit basket (below)

The Pompeian and Italian Renaissance coincide and are not separated by one and a half millenia.


Figure 11: Pompeian or Italian Renaissance: Lying maenad from Pompeii (above) - Titian: Lying courtesan (below)

Caravaggio as well as Titian and Rafael were Pompeian or Renaissance artists.

Pompeii was obviously an important and very influential artistic place.


 

Figure 12: The Battle of Alexander. Mosaic from Pompeii (sketch, detail)

from: Houses and Monuments of Pompeii; Los Angeles 2002, 115

This monumental mosaic, discovered in a Pompeian villa in 1831, is considered to be an ancient Greek work of art.

But comparisons with the Bernese artist Schilling (below) and famous artists like Rafael prove that this is an artistic work of the Renaissance.


Figure 13 A: The battle of Jammertal (Bern)

Aquarelle from the chronicle of Diebold Schilling, Berne.

In this and other battle scenes the unknown artist shows a strong resemblance, in its composition as well as in its many details, with the mosaic of Alexander in Pompeii.

Did the Renaissance artists work in Pompeii?


Figure 13 B: Comparison details between The battle of Laupen by Schilling (left) and the battle of Alexander from Pompeii (right)

These details prove the strong resemblance between ancient and Renaissance art.


Figure 14: Facade comparison between the Gothic cathedral of Famagusta in Cyprus (left) and the Gothic cathedral of Reims (right)

The two edifices have a strong resemblance and are probably designed by the same architect. It shows that Cyprus was still in Western hands in the 1760s.


Figure 15: The steeple of the Gothic cathedral of Fribourg (Freiburg), Switzerland

Photo: author, 2012


Figure 16: Strasburg in Alsace with his Munster in a figure from the chronicle of Hartmann Schedel (detail)

This is allegedly the oldest illustrated printed chronicle ("1493 AD" = around 1750/1760). Even then it shows the actual aspect of the Gothic cathedral of this city with only one completed steeple.


Figure 17: The Gothic monastery Notre-Dame d'Isova on Morea (Peloponnese)

Reconstruction design, colored by the author.

from: Antoine Bon, La Morée franque; Paris 1969, 543

This is a nice example of "late medieval" gothic monastery architecture, to be set around 1760. This monument proves that the Peloponnesus was still dominated by the West at this time.


Figure 18: The Acropolis of Athens in a photo from 1865

View from West.

from: Haris Ylakoumis: L’Acropole d’Athènes. Photographies 1839 – 1959; Paris 2000, 223.

Photo colored by the author.

The so-called tower of the Franks left of the Propylaea is noteworthy, and was later demolished by Schliemann.

Fomenko recalls that the masonry of the tower of the Franks has an identical appearance as that of the surrounding Propylaea and the Nike Temple: The "medieval" tower and the buildings of "classical Greek" antiquity were constructed at the same period.


Figure 19: The remaining columns of the Olympieion in Athens

from: Hanns Holdt: Griechenland; Berlin 1928, 159

Photo colored by the author.

In the opinion of the author, this is Roman architecture of the Crusader period and dated in the first half of the 18th century.

The Olympieion was probably never completed.


Figure 20: Comparison plan: Hagia Sophia (Ayasofya) (top) and the Mosque of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent (Suleymaniye) (below) in Constantinople - Istanbul

from: Henri Stierlin: Türkei; Köln 2002, 126, 127

The comparison between these two most important sacred buildings of Istanbul clearly demonstrates the strong resemblance between old Christian art and the beginnings of Islamic architecture.


Figure 21: Knight hall in Gothic style in the Crusader castle Krak des Chevaliers in Syria

from: Die Levante; Köln 1998, 282

According to official opinion, this is "late Gothic style in the 13th century AD".

We have to accept that the Levante and Syria was dominated by the West up to the 1760s.

So the Gothic style is set in the middle of the 18th century.


Figure 22: The Marble Lion of Stavros (Kantza) near Athens

From: Hans Rupprecht Goette: Athen - Attika - Megaris; Köln 1993

Colored by the author.

Almost all monuments in Athens and Attica are attributed to classical Greek culture. - However, we consider this lion a work from the "medieval" Crusader era.


Figure 23; The re-erected Lion of Chaeronea (Heronia) in Boeotia (Viotia), Greece

from: Martin Hürlimann: Ewiges Griechenland. Ein Schau- und Lesebuch; Zürich 1977

Colored by the author.

This is certainly a lion monument of the Crusader era.

Note that three battles were set near Heronia between the antiquity and the Middle Ages:

"338 AC": Defeat of the Greeks against Philipp of Macedonia

"86 AC": Victory of Sulla over Mithridates of Pontus

"1311 AD": Defeat of the Franks against the Catalans (battle at the river Kephissos)

Which event was this lion erected for?


Figure 24: Comparison between the plans of Castel del Monte (Apulia - Italy) (top) and Vailly-sur-Sauldre (Cher - France) (below)

from: Uwe Albrecht: Von der Burg zum Schloss. Französische Schlossbaukunst im Spätmittelalter; Worms 1986

The plan comparison clearly shows that these two buildings have an identical blueprint and are probably built by the same architect.


Figure 25 A: The round tower (Donjon) of Coucy (Aisne)

Photo from 1891

The tower was deliberately demolished by the German army in 1917.

from: Christian Corvisier: Coucy-le-Château, images et mémoire; Soissons 1999, p. 56

This impressive donjon (main tower) shows a Gothic interior and originally had four pinnacles on top of the roof. It is considered a work of late castle architecture, to be set around the middle of the 18th century.


Figure 25 B: Reconstruction sketch of the top of the donjon of Coucy-le-Château (Aisne)

from: Ch. Corvisier, 43

Note the Gothic pinnacles that embellished the crown of the tower.


Figure 26: The Herodion, (Arabic: Jebel Fureidis), south of Jerusalem in Palestine

Aerial view from the south-west

from: Ehud Netzer: Die Paläste der Hasmonäer und Herodes' des Grossen; Mainz 2001, 91

The Herodion is to be considered a built visualization of Vesuvius and its religion, dominating the ancient world and early Middle Ages.


Figure 27: Comparison between the Roman Forum of Gerasa (Jerash) in Jordan and St. Peter's Square in Rome

from: internet

The comparison between these two places shows that St. Peter's Square in Rome (revised dating: around 1790) was influenced by the oriental Roman building. The time gap between these two monuments is to estimated no more than half a century.


Figure 28: "Medieval" Illumination: Duc de Berry: Les très riches heures: Paris (detail)

This detail is taken from the Calendar Gallery of Les très riches heures du Duc de Berry, in the month of June.

We see in the background some buildings of Paris: the town hall  (left) and la Sainte Chapelle (right).

Here Paris is a Gothic - built city, just before its later architectural transformations.

The illumination is to be set around 1760 - 1770 - neither earlier nor later.


Figure 29: Decoration of Villard de Honnecourt: cheek of a choir stall

Villard is considered an artist from the "13th century AD". - However his drawings clearly show a Gothic style with some early baroque elements. - To be set between 1760 - 1770.


Figure 30: Gold coins with portraits of Emperor Vespasianus (top) and Titus (below)

from: Kaiser Roms im Münzporträt; Stuttgart o.J. (2003), 25, 27

The Great Action first postulated one Vesuvian emperor VESPASIANUS TITUS with a reign of 12 years. - After some time, an emperor TITUS VESPASIANUS was created with a reign of 2 years (Vespasianus 10 years). The portraits of the two emperors however are in fact indistinguishable and show the "unnatural" splitting of one person in two.


Figure 31: The Castle of Noli on the Riviera di Ponente (Italy)

Photo: author, 7.1991

Like countless other watch towers and castles on the Mediterranean shores of Spain, France and Italy, these fortifications are protection from the menace of Saracen pirates in North Africa, especially around Tunis.

The Saracens of the 18th century, however, figure in ancient Roman history as the Punics or Carthaginians from Tunis.


Figure 32: Fomenko: The parallels between the rulers of the Holy Roman Empire in the High Middle Ages and the kings of the part kingdom of Judah in the Old Testament

from: A. Fomenko: Empirico-statistical analysis of narrative material and its applications to historical dating, vol. 2; Dordrecht 194, 36

Remastered by the author

Note that the two lists of rulers are sometimes overlapping and not always congruent. However, the parallels of all major kings and events are evident. They are made from the same textbook of history.


Figure 33: Mosaic medallion from Hinton Saint-Mary (Dorset - England)

(British Museum)

At the center is a portrait of Christ without a beard, on the background of a chi and rho and flanked by two pomegranates.

A portrait of Jesus Christ in a mosaic of the Late Roman Empire embarrasses historians: Was the "pagan" Roman culture in fact a Christian one?


Figure 34: Monumental head of a bishop from the Bernese sculptures fund

from: Bildersturm; Zürich 2000, 319

This expressive portrait of a bishop was mutilated and thrown into a filling of a platform in Berne after the Reformation. - When was this event? - After the years "1520", or around 1760?


Figure 35: Lion relief in the form of a coat of arms of Acre (Israel)

Found and exposed in Saint-Jean-d'Acre (Akko), Israel

This is French style of the Crusader era. - According to the author, it is to be set in the middle of the 18th century.



Tables

Table 1: Data of great events of world history according Dionysius Petavius (Denis Pétau)

Julian Period

Age of the World

Ante Christum/Anno Domini

Creation of the World ex nihilo

730

1

3983

Fall of Troy

3505

2695

1209

Separation of the Kingdom of Israel after Solomon
3739

3029

975

Foundation of Rome
3960

3250

754

Birth of Christ
4710

3980

4 AC

Death of Christ
4744

4014

33 AD

Emperor Coronation of Charlemagne
   

800 AD


(Table 2: Geographical names in east and west)


*****

Table 3: Ancient and medieval writers and their modern parallels

ANTIQUITY and MIDDLE AGES MODERN TIMES
The writer PLUTARCH

The name Plutarch is close to Petrarca.

 Plutarch comes from Viotia (BOETIAM = BTM > BLM = BELGICAM, Belgium).

Plutarch wrote parallel biographies as: Cicero - Demosthenes.

The writer PETRARCA

The name Petrarca is close to Plutarch.

 Petrarca is supposedly Italian, but a lot of the time he stays in Belgium (Liège).

Petrarca appreciates Cicero and "discovers" a large part of his writings.

VITRUVIUS is the most famous ancient theorist of architecture.

Vitruvius is an anagram of Alberti.

His major work is De architectura.

Leon Battista ALBERTI is the most famous Renaissance theorist of architecture.

Alberti is an anagram of Vitruvius.

His major work is De re aedificatoria.

It is said that Alberti erected classical Roman buildings, for example the Colosseum.

The ALMAGEST, an ancient astronomical work, is said to have been written under the Emperor Antoninus Pius (= the Pious). Under Maximilian I in the early modern period, the ALMAGEST was issued.
Maximilian I. the Pious (= PIUS) is a parallelism to Antoninus Pius.
BASIL the Great or St. BASIL of Caesarea
Basil is a reformer of faith.
Basil the Great founds a spiritual ideal state BASILIAS.
Erasmus of Rotterdam edited the works of St. BASIL the Great in BASEL.
Basil the Great influences the Reformers, as Erasmus.
The Utopia, the description of a (spiritual) ideal state is published by Erasmus in BASEL.
The Church Father JOHN Chrysostomus is the successor of St. Basil the Great.

John Chrysostomus is a passionate preacher.

Chrysostomus continues the Reformation.

The theologian JOHN Huzgen (Oecolampad) is the spiritual successor of Erasmus of Rotterdam in Basel.

John Huzgen is a passionate preacher.

John Huzgen (Oecolampad) edits the works of John Chrysostomus

Lucian of Samosata

His Dialogues of the Courtesans, Dialogues of the Gods, Dialogues of the Deads, Dialogues of the Sea-Gods deal with human weaknesses.

Erasmus of Rotterdam

Erasmus is the editor of Lucian.

Erasmus is the author of In Praise of Foolishness (Laus stultitiae), which deals with human weaknesses.

Dionysius Exiguus

exiguus = thin, petit

Dionysius is a chronologist of late antiquity.

Dionysius is a clergyman (monk) in Rome.

Dionysius is the inventor of the year counting after Christ's birth, the Anno Domini style.

Denis Pétau = Dionysius Petavius

Pétau = petit

Denis Pétau is a chronologist of modern times.

Denis Pétau is a clergyman (Jesuit) in Paris.

Denis Pétau uses the Anno Domini style for all of world history.

Flavius Josephus

Flavius = blond

Flavius Josephus writes The antiquities of the Jews, where he demonstrates his goodwill to the Romans.

Flavio Biondo

Biondo = Flavius

Flavio Biondo writes works about The Roman and Italian antiquities.

PLATO

PLATONEM = PLTN > NEAPOLIS

Plato teaches in Athens right before the beginning of Hellenism.

Plato describes in his Nomoi a communist ideal state.

Gemisthos PLETHON

Name: The duplicated Plato

Gemisthos Plethon teaches in Italy right before the beginning of the Renaissance.

Plethon describes a communist ideal state.

PLOTINE

Name: Plato

Plotine teaches in late antiquity in Campagna.

Plotine describes an utopic ideal state.

PLATO and Gemisthos PLETHON

Both describe an utopic ideal state.

Euseb of CAESAREA

He writes at the time of Constantine the Great an Ecclesiastical history. - This book has later many sequels.

CESARE Baronius

He writes an Ecclesiastical history. - This book has later many sequels.

Jerome

He translates the Bible from Hebrew and Greek into Latin Vulgata.

Jerome knows St. Augustine.

Jerome is a vehement enemy of the Jews.

Luther

He translates the Bible from Hebrew, Latin and Greek into German.

Luthur is an Augustine monk.

Luther is a vehement enemy of the Jews.

Augustine

This Church Father has a major influence on Protestantism.

Augustine teaches about Original Sin.

Augustine writes a pamphlet Against the Jews.

Luther

This Augustine monk is the spiritus rector of Protestantism.

Luther teaches about Original Sin.

Luther writes a pamphlet Against the Jews.

 

The Apostle Paul

Paul converted on a ride to Damascus to Christianity.

Paul's theology is based on sola gratia Dei.

Paul reaches an age of 62.

Luther

Luther converted on a ride to Erfurt to righteous christianity.

Luther's theology is based on sola gratia Dei.

Luther reaches an age of 62.

Roger BACON

He was a Franciscan friar, philosopher and thinker in medieval England.

Bacon postulates the rejection of ecclesiastical authorities and enhances the empirical science as well as the inductive method.

Roger Bacon predicts a lot of technical inventions.

 

Francis BACON

He was a politician, philosopher and thinker in the England of modern times.

Bacon postulates the rejection of spiritual authorities and enhances the empirical science as well as the inductive method.

Francis Bacon predicts a lot of technical inventions.


*****

Table 4: The four main parallel stories of the Trojan war

from: A.T. Fomenko, Empirico-statistical analysis of narrative material and its applications to historical dating; vol. 2, Dordrecht 1994, 233 ff., edited by the author

Trojan war Tarquinian war in Rome Gothic war in Italy War of the Gauls, Gallic war
Author: Homer

(or: Dictys and Dares)

Author: Tite Livy Author: Procopius of Caesarea Author: Julius Caesar
Name: The count of St. Omer Name: The Vesuvian Napolitain Name: The paracletus of the caesar Name: Julius = Jesus god
The most important war in ancient history The most important war in early Roman history The most important and longest war in Byzantine history The most important war at the end of the Roman republic
Duration of war: 10 years Duration of war: more than 10 years Duration of war: 18 years Duration of war: less than 10 years
The Greeks are orthodox. The Romans are orthodox. The Byzantines are orthodox, the Ostrogoths Arians. The Romans are orthodox, the Gauls pagans.
The principal king of Troy is Priam. The principal king is Tarquinius Superbus. The principal king (emperor) is Justinian. The principal king is Pompey the Great.
Priam does not take part in military action. Tarquinius Superbus does not take part in military action. Justinian does not take part in military action. Pompey does not take part in military action.
War started with amphibious action against the island of Tenedos = Sicily.   War started with Byzantine amphibious action against Sicily. Amphibious action against England is part of this war.
Troy is an extremely powerful seaside fortress.

Troy has Roman possessions = lays in Italy.

Rome is an extremely powerful seaside fortress (like Constantinople). Naples is an extremely powerful seaside fortress in Italy Alesia is a powerful fortress in Gaul.
Unsuccessful siege of Troy.   Unsuccessful siege of Naples. Unsuccessful siege of Alesia.
Mount Ida is situated near Troy.

IDA = Italia

Rome is situated near Alba and a sacred mountain = Mount Vesuvius. Mount Vesuvius is situated near Naples. Alesia = (V)LS = VOLUSIUS > VESUVIUS
Reason of war is a woman: abduction or rape of Helen Reason of war is a woman: rape of Lucretia Reason of war is a woman: abduction and killing of Amalasuntha. Reason of war is a woman: Caesar's daughter as well as Pompey's wife, Julia, dies and divides the two rulers.
Paris, the abductor of Helen, was soon killed. Lucretia's offender, Sextus Tarquinius, was soon killed. Amalasuntha's offender, Theodahat, was soon killed. Claudius, Julia's offender, was soon killed.
Commander of the Trojans is Hector. Commander of the Tarquins is King Porsenna Commander of the Goths is King Vitiges. Commander of the Gauls' tribes is King Vercingetorix.
Commander of the Greeks is Achilles. Commander of the Romans is Publius Valerius Publicola. Commander of the Byzantines is Belisarius. Commander of the Romans is Julius Caesar.
Sub-commander of Achilles is Ulysses. He is Achilles' continuation. Sub-commander is Martius Coriolanus (Lartius). He is Valerius' continuation. Sub-Commander is Narses. He is  Belisarius' continuation. Sub-commander is Marcus Tullius Cicero. He is Caesar's continuation.

 

Achilles dresses in female clothes  (eunuch) in order to not be recognized.   Narses was a eunuch. Cicero was a eunuch = orbator (orator).
Achilles betrays Hector and kills him. Valerius betrays Aruns and kills him. Belisar betrays Vitiges and kills him. Caesar captures Vercingetorix and kills him later.
Achilles' betrayal leads to an armistice and to the death of the hero.   Belisar's betrayal leads to an armistice and to his removal. Caesar's betrayal is the reason for his later assassination.
Achilles was charged with hunger for regal power. Valerius was charged with hunger for regal power. Belisarius was charged with hunger for regal power. Caesar is later charged with hunger for regal power.
A trick (Trojan horse) leads to Troy's fall.   A trick (aqueduct = equa, equus = horse) leads to Naples' fall. A trick leads to Alesia's fall.
Hunger and pestilence accompany the war.   Hunger and pestilence accompany the war in Italy.  
Achilles and Agamemnon dispute over the female slave Briseis = PRS = Persia.

Note: Paris = PRS = Persia

Rome is taken by King Porsenna = PRS = Persia Justinian leads at the same time a war against the Persans. Caesar plans military action against the Persans.
The fall of Troy marks the end of war. The fall of Rome marks the end of war. The fall of Naples occurs at the beginning of war. The fall of Alesia marks the end of war.
The Trojans have a treasure (the treasure of Priam).   The Goths have a treasure (the Rhine gold).  
Result of the war: victory of the right religion. Result: restitution of the right religion in Rome. Result: victory of the right religion in Italy and the annihilation of Arianism. Result: victory of the right (Catholic) religion in Gaul with its Pontifex maximus (the pope).

*****

Table 5: The parallels between the Trojan War and the history between Israelites and Benjamites in the biblical Book of Judges

after: A.T. Fomenko: History: Fiction or Science, vol. 2 (2005); Paris, etc; p. 358

Edited by the author.

Trojan or Gothic War Book of Judges (chapter 19 and 20)
The Trojan clan in Italy or Romea The tribe of Benjamin
Helena "leaves" her husband. The concubine leaves her husband, the levite.
Mount Vesuvius Mount Ephraim
The city of Naples or Troy The city of Gibeah (hebrew: gib'ah = hill, mountain)
Violent treatment of a woman (Helen, Lucretia, Amalasuntha) The concubine is raped.
The death of the woman (Helen, Lucretia, Amalasuntha) The death of the concubine
The Greeks demand to hand over the culprit The Israelites demand to hand over the rapists
Troy declines to comply. Gibeah declines to comply with the demands of Israel.
The war begins because of the humiliation of a woman. The war begins because of the violence wrought upon a woman.
The siege of Troy or Naples with numerous battles at the city. The siege of Gibeah with numerous battles at the city walls.
Ruse of war used during the capture of Troy or Naples Ruse of war used during the capture of Gibeah.
The Greeks pretend to retreat from Troy. The Israelites pretend to retreat from Gibeah.
There is an ambush: the Greeks return suddenly, conquer the city and kill the inhabitants of Troy. There is an ambush: The Israelites make an unexpected return and kill all the people of Gibeah.
Final battle between the Greeks and the remnants of the Goths (in the Gothic war). Final battle between the Israelites and the remnants of the Benjamites.
The battle takes place at Mount Vesuvius (near ROME) The battle takes place at rock RIMMON = Rome)
The rape of the Sabine women (Sabine = Sicily) The rape of the daughters of Shiloh (= Sicily)

*****

Table 6: Doppelgangers of Jesus

(Selection

Esus

ESUS = (J)ESUS

Celtic divinity in a trinity

Osiris or Horus

Osiris = probably composed from Jesus + rex (Fomenko)

Egyptian saviour and sun divinity, killed by his brother and rival Seth (see Kain and Abel, Romulus and Remus).

Hector

Two composants: victor + sotér = saviour

God-son of Godfather King Priam of Troy.

Hector is killed by a lance stitch of his Greek rival Achilles (see Jesus).

Hercules (Heracles)

HERCULES > HRCLM > H/RCLM > H/CRSTM = CHRISTUM, Christ

Hercules is the rejected son of his godfather, descending to humankind, and doing hard labor.

Jason

JASON = Jesus

Jason is the mythical leader of the Argonauts (ARAGON + nautae = seafarer of Aragon), a reflection of the Crusades against the Eastern World.

Jason's father was AISON = Jesus, his grandfather CRETEUS = Christ.

Isaac

ISAAC = Jesus

He is the son of ABRAHAM = father of Rome. The latter is ready to sacrifice Isaac by order of god.

Joshua

Composition of JESUS + ANJOU (Charles of Anjou, the medieval conqueror of the Holy Land of Naples.

Joshua is the son and deputy of his father Moses. He conquers in his name the Holy Land.

Jesse

JESSE = Jesus

Father of King David.

Asa

ASA > (J)S = Jesus

Orthodox king of Judah (1 Kings, 15, 11 - 24)

Jesua

JESUA = Joshua or/and Jesus

Leader of the Jews after their homecoming from Babylonian captivity (Ezra, 2, 2).

Alexander the Great

(V)Alessandro (Italian) = VLS > VOLUSIUS, VESUVIUS + SANCTUS

Macedonian = Mohammedan king’s son.

He conquers the Greek eastern world for Christianism.

Alexander achieves a decisive victory against the Persians near ISSUS = JESUS in 333 AC.

Alexander is poisoned in the papal city of Babylon = Avignon.

Spartacus

SPARTACUS in Greek STAVROTIKOS = the crucified

The pre-Christian Saviour. He comes from Thrace (holy region) and as a slave organizes an uprising in Roman Southern Italy.

After his defeat Spartacus and his followers are crucified on the Via Appia between Naples and Rome.

Jesus of Nazareth

The most eminent saviour in Christianism, but not the only one. His life is a duplicate of the Vita Caesaris (Francesco Carotta).

Jesus is born in an ox stable in Bethlehem near Jerusalem = Velletri near Rome.

His parents are of humble descendence.

Note the name Nazareth = Saint Nazaire (France).

Jesus started his religious activity at the age of 30.

His elder companion John the Baptist is later decapitated.

Jesus accomplishes a lot of miracles, but is suspected of striving for the title of King of Jerusalem (see Julius Caesar).

Jesus becomes victim of a conspiracy, is stabbed to death (see Julius Caesar), but ascended afterwards to heaven.

Julius Caesar

Julius Caesar is the alter ego of Jesus of Nazareth or vice versa (Francesco Carotta).

Caesar was first a religious leader, a Pontifex maximus = pope, and of Gallic origin.

In the 10-year war of the Gauls he settles the country for the righteous Catholic religion.

After entering Italy, he crosses the Red River = Rubicon = Eridanus = Po, and takes Rome triumphantly. Thereby Caesar drives out his rival Pompey the Great, a duplicate of John the Baptist. Pompey is later decapitated.

Caesar settles the Calendar, and makes religious reforms.

Caesar’s miracles are well known.

Julius Caesar is suspected of striving for the title of king. So he is stabbed to death in a conspiracy. His clothing is exposed on a cross.

Octavianus Augustus

Octavianus is a Christian Saviour. He was born in an ox stable at VELLETRI = Bethlehem) near Rome = Jerusalem). A comet accompanied his birth.

Later they told in the Evangile that the saviour was born under his rule.

Augustus unified the Roman Empire, killing his eastern rival Mark Antony.

Basil the Great of Caesarea

His is the most famous eastern Church father, and the spiritual leader founder of the Eastern Orthodox Church.

See table 7.

Hildebrand - Pope Gregory VII

The medieval Jesus-parallel (Fomenko)

His approximate life-dates are 1020 – 1086 AD = 2 x 33 (the age of Jesus Christ).

Hildebrand was allegedly born in Tuscany, entered Rome as a monk in 1049 on the Aventine Hill.

He started his religious activity in 1053 AD at the age of 33, accompanied by a comet in 1054.

Elected pope in 1073 he challenged the Roman emperor Henry IV in 1076.

Hildebrand is considered to be a great reformer of the Roman church, but also a sinister person: “holy Satan”.

Note his German name ("golden burning"). Perhaps he was from Germany and Italianized later.

At the end of his life he is besieged in Rome, freed by the Normans and abducted to Southern Italy where he died in Salerno. – No notices about his death.

*******

Table 7: The parallels between Jesus and St. Basil the Great

from: A. Fomenko: History: Fiction or Science, vol. 2, Paris etc. 2005, 46 f.

Jesus of Nazareth Basil the Great of Caesarea
Jesus is the spiritual king of the Jews and founder of a new religion. Basil is a spiritual king, one of the most important Christian saints and founder of the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Jesus' wisdom was subject of admiration. Basil assumed the whole wisdom of his time.
The wanderings of Jesus before his ministration, especially the time he spent in the desert. Basil had left for Egypt where he lived on water and vegetables.
Jesus returns from his wanderings with a group of twelve followers, known as the Apostles. The Great King returns from his travels surrounded by followers.
Jesus and his disciples enter Jerusalem preaching ascetism and poverty. St. Basil and his disciples do likewise.
Jesus is baptized by a greater man = St. John the Baptist.

(Matthew, 3; Mark, 1)

Basil is baptized by a greater man: MAXIMUS = the greater, the greatest.
Transfiguration of Jesus (Mattthew, 17). Transfiguration of Basil the Great.
Jesus has a close companion older than him: Simon Petrus Basil has a close companion older than him: Eubulus.
Next to Jesus stands St. Peter the Apostle, a married man (Mark, 1). Next to Basil stands Peter, a high priest, a married man with children.
Jesus performs many miracles. Basil performs miracles.
The devil tempts Jesus (Luke, 4) The devil tempts the Great King.
Mary Magdalene had been living a life of sin for a long time. After a meeting with Jesus she was absolved of her sins. A certain rich widow had been living a dissolute life. When she had met Basil the Great, she received absolution.
Jesus is said to have known the secret thoughts of people and proves this at a meeting with a Samaritan woman.

SAMARITAN = Saint Mary

Basil is said to have known the secret thoughts of people and proves this in a meeting with a woman named Theognia.

THEOGNIA = divinely born

State authorities begin repression against Jesus. He and his apostles head an oppositional religious movement. Emperor Valens assaults the Great King, in order to make him adhere to Arianism. Basil resists and heads the opposition with his followers.
The authorities are supported by the Pharisees, sworn ennemies of Jesus (John, 7). Basi'ls sworn enemies are the Arians. They enjoy the support of the emperor's authorities.
The trial over Jesus begins. He is 33 years old. The trial over Basil begins. He is about 35 years old.
Pontius Pilate, the chief Roman magistrate, seeing that he was getting nowhere, refuses to judge Jesus and washes his hands before the crowd. Emperor Valens wants to sign the sentence, but the cane breaks in his hands. He then tears his decree to pieces.
PONTIUS Pilate is a hangman from PONTUS. The trial over the Great King takes place at the residence of the high priest of PONTUS.
King Herod hands Jesus over to Pontius Pilate. Emperor Valens hands Basil over to the high priest of Pontus.
The court sentences Jesus to death. The court sentences Basil to death.
After the Crucifixion, a miracle takes place: the Resurrection of Jesus Christ. A miracle saves St. Basil the Great from death.
After his Resurrection Jesus appears before many - his disciples in particular (Matthew, 28). After his "resurrection" Basil lived for 10 years and died being a great religious leader in 378 AD.
Before his death or the crucifixion, Jesus chooses his younger and most beloved disciple St. JOHN the Apostle during the Last Supper. Before his death, the Great King transfers his authority to his disciple John Chrysostomus.
Jesus is considered the founder of Christianity. Basil the Great is considered the progenitor of Christian mysteries and a liturgy is called after him.
Jesus is the head of the Holy Family, a group of Christian saints. Basil of Caesarea was canonized as a Christian saint together with his brothers and sisters.
Jesus reached an age of 33 (luke, 3), or he was approaching 50 (John, 8) Basil was condemned at the age of 35, and reached an age of 45.
The feast of the nativity of Christ (Christmas) is the most important Christian holiday. The feast of the nativity of St. Basil the Great (first of January) is the most important holiday in the Eastern Church.

*****

Table 8: Some numerological constructions

(selection)

a) Constructions with the number 450

1. Naval battle of Salamis - Naval battle of Actium

480 AC 30 AC
Victory of the Athenians over the Persians in a sea battle near Salamis.

The Persians are an eastern power.

Salamis is situated in Greece.

SALAMIS = SLMS > CLM(T)S = CALAMITAS, calamity

Victory of Emperor Augustus over Mark Antony and Cleopatra in a sea battle near Actium.

Mark Antony and Cleopatra stand for the Eastern Roman Empire.

Actium is situated in Greece.

ACTIUM = CTM > CLMT(S) = CALAMITAS, calamity

The time gap between the two events is 450 years or 10 Roman intervals of 45 years or 30 Roman numbers of 15.

The two sea battles are the most important events of Greek and Roman history.

An ancient year counting started with Actium.

Half of 450 is 255: In 255 AC there were sea battles between the Romans and Carthagians around Sicily.

2. Exodus of the Plebeians from Rome - The death of Julius Caesar - The birth of Jesus Christ

494 AC

First exodus of the Plebeians from Rome to the sacred mountain = Vesuvius

44 AC

Death of Julius Caesar in Rome

449 AC

Second exodus of the Plebeians from Rome to the sacred mountain = Vesuvius

1 AD

Birth of Jesus Christ near Rome or Jerusalem

 

The time gap between the two events (494 - 44, and 449 - 1) is 450 years.

The Plebeians are the Judeochristians. With their exodus they wanted to gain religious self-determination.

See the parallels with the exodus of the Jews from Egypt.

b) Constructions with the number 666

1. The death of Julius Caesar - The escape of the Prophet Mohammed

44 AC

Death of Julius Caesar in Rome

 

622 AD

Hegira: escape of the Prophet Mohammed from Mekka to Medina.

The time gap between these two dates is 666 years.

The religion of Mohammed refers to the monotheism initialized by Julius Caesar or Jesus Christ.

The Western and Christian roots of the religion of Mohammed are obvious.

2. First destruction of Jerusalem - Eruption of Vesuvius

587 AC

The Babylonians (= the Papals) under Nebuchadnezzar (= prophet of calamity) conquer and destroy Jerusalem and abduct the population. This is the beginning of the Babylonian captivity of the Jews.

 

79 AD

This most important eruption of Vesuvius in history destroys the city of Pompeii (or Rome, or Jerusalem).

The time gap between the two dates is 666 years.

The eruption of Vesuvius is a divine hint to return to the religion of the fathers.

 The Jews accept their laws at the foot of Vesuvius = Sinai = Horeb.

The eruption of Vesuvius is the most important event of Judeochristianism.

c) Numerological constructions with 450 and 666

1. Solar eclipse of Thucydides

431 AC

Famous solar eclipse, described by Thucydides, II, 28

19 AD

Death of Germanicus In Syria, 450 years after 431 AC

431 AC

Famous solar eclipse, described by Thucydides, II, 28

 

235 AD

Death of Emperor Severus Alexander in Sicklingen (= Sicily) or Bretzenheim (= Britannia) near Mainz.

 

The time gap between these events are 450 and 666 years.

Germanicus is a doppelganger of Jesus. His death marks the end of the Augustan epoch.

The death of Severus Alexander marks the end of the second Roman empire.

d. Christograms

1. Natural disasters around the solar eclipse of Thucydides

464 AC

Earthquake in Sparta

Sum of the digits: 14
431 AC

Solar eclipse of Thucydides

Sum of the digits: 8
425 AC

Peste in Athens

Sum of the digits: 11
The sum of the three digit-sums is 33, the age of Jesus Christ.

*****

2. Fall of Burgundy

437 AD

The Huns anihilate the Kingdom of Burgundy of Worms on the Rhine River.

Sum of the digits: 14
1477 AD

A coalition of German and French anihilate the Duchy of Burgundy under Charles the Bold.

Sum of the digits: 19
The sum of the digits is 33, the age of Jesus Christ.

Note the duplication of the fall of the Burgundy Kingdom.

*****

3. The rise and fall of the old Swiss Confederates

1315 AD

Victory of the Swiss Confederates over Habsburg at the Battle of Morgarten.

The Swiss gain their independence.

Sum of the digits: 10
1415

During the Council of Constance, the Swiss Confederates conquer the county of Argovia from the Habsburgs.

Sum of the digits: 11
1515

Defeat of the Swiss Confederates by the King of France in the Battle of Marignano (=  (Sancta) Maria).

The Swiss lose their independence.

Sum of the digits: 12
The sum of the three numbers is 33, the age of Jesus Christ.

Note the arithmetical series 10 - 11 - 12

 

e. Numerological reflections

1. Fall of Troy - Fall of Jerusalem

1187 AC

Fall of Troy

1187 AD

Fall of Jerusalem after the defeat of the Crusaders at Hittin in Palestine

*****

2: Victory of Alexander the Great against the Persians near Issus = JESUS - The birth of the Eastern Christian saviour Basil the Great

333 AC

Victory of Alexander the Great over the Persians in the battle of Issus in Eastern Anatolia.

333 AD

Birth of the Greek Church Father St. Basil the Great in Eastern Anatolia.

*****

3. Conquest of Carthage - Conquest of Tunis

535 AD

At the time of the Roman Emperor Justinianus I, the Byzantines  conquer Carthage from the Vandals. This German people are barbarians and pirates.

1535 AD

The Roman Emperor Charles V conquers Tunis, the antique Carthage, from its ruler Chaireddin Barbarossa. The latter is a barbarian and a pirate.

*****

Table 9: Conquests of Rome (Troy, Jerusalem, Samaria, Naples, Byzance, Athens, Ravenna, Constantinople)

City Remarks
1187 AC: Troy

The Achaeians (Greeks) from the West conquer and destroy the well fortified seaside city of Troy after nearly  a ten year siege.

Other dates for the fall of Troy: 1255 AC, 1209 AC, 1186 AC

An archetypical conquest of Rome.

Note the Trojan end number 7.

The Trojan War is the main blueprint for the matrix of old history.

 

722 AC: Samaria

The Assyrian king Shalmaneser conquers Samaria, the capital of the sub-kingdom of Israel after a siege of three years and deports the inhabitants.

This is the end of the Kingdom of Israel.

SAMARIA = SANCTA MARIA

An absolute parallel to the conquest of Jerusalem in 587 AC with a difference of 135 ( 3 x 45) years

587 AC: Jerusalem

The Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar conquers Jerusalem and deports the whole population to Mesopotamia. This is the beginning of the 70-year Babylonian captivity of the Jews.

End of the sub-kingdom of Judah.

A duplication of the conquest of Samaria 135 years before.

Note the Trojan end number 7.

The conquest took place on the 9th of Aw of the Jewish calendar (see the conquest of Jerusalem at the 9th of Aw in 70 AD).

507 AC: Rome

King Porsenna from Clusium conquers Rome, but soon leaves the city.

PORSENNA = PRS = PERSIA

CLUSIUM = CHRISTUM, Christ

Note the Trojan end number 7.

480 AC: Athens

During the Persan war from 490 - 480 AC the city of Athens is conquered at the end of the war, but soon liberated after the naval victory of Salamis.

 

Duration of Persan war: 10 years (like the Trojan war)

Troy is conquered either at the beginning or at the end of the Trojan war.

The Persians conquer the city of Eritrea at the beginning of the war.

387 AC: Rome

The Gauls, under their leader Brennus, conquer Rome, but not the Capitol. They withdraw after payment of a ransom (Vae victis!).

An antique prefiguration of the conquests of Rome by the French in the late Middle Ages.

Note the Trojan end number 7.

364 AC: Byzantium

King Philipp II of Macedonia conquers the well fortified seaside city on the Golden Horn.

An antique parallel to the well known conquest of Constantinople in 1453.

Both the Macedonians and the Turks come from Thrace (TRC).

332 AC: Tyre

Alexander the Great on his campaign against Persia conquers the city after a siege of seven months.

Tyre = TRM = TROJAM, Troy

Note the Troy-number 7.

49 AC: Rome

Triumphant entry of Julius Caesar in Rome after coming from Gaul and crossing the river Eridanus (Po) = Jordan = Rubicon

An absolute parallel to the triumphant entry of Jesus in Jerusalem.

Jesus Christ = Julius Caesar

70 AD: Jerusalem

Titus Vespasianus, Vespasian's son, conquers Jerusalem at the end of a Jewish uprising. He deports the inhabitants and takes away the Temple's treasures.

The conquest takes place on the 9th of Aw (see Jerusalem in 587 AC).

Titus organizes a great triumph in Rome (Arch of Titus).

"Judah is now in Rome!"

115 AD: Jerusalem

Emperor Trajan extinguishes a Jewish uprising and conquers Jerusalem.

45 years after Titus' conquest of Jerusalem.
133 or 135: Jerusalem

Emperor Hadrian extinguishes a Jewish uprising under their leader Bar Kochba = son of the stars.

Jerusalem is completely destroyed. In place of the Temple, Hadrian constructs a temple for Jupiter.

Jerusalem is rebuilt under the name AELIA CAPITOLINA = divine Golgotha.

An obvious duplication of Trajan's conquest of Jerusalem, due to the splitting of Trajan - Hadrian for the single person of Solomon.
196: Byzantium

Emperor Septimius Severus conquers the city of Byzance after a siege of three years from his former opponent Pescennius Niger.

Byzance is destroyed, but then rebuilt after the intercession of his son Caracalla.

An absolute parallel to the conquest of Ravenna by Theodoric the Great: two barbarian rulers, a seaside city, a three-year siege.
410: Rome

Alaric and his Visigoths conquer and plunder Rome.

An archetypical barbaric conquest of Rome.

A shattering event for the whole Late Roman Empire (see Orosius, Augustine).

900 (20 x 45) years after the end of the Regal Rome (510 AC).

455: Rome

The Vandals from Tunis, under their leader Genseric, land in Ostia, conquer and plunder Rome.

Note the interval of 45 years after Alaric's conquest of Rome.
493: Ravenna

Theodoric the Great, king of the Ostrogoths, conquers the seaside city of Ravenna after a siege of three years from the barbarian ruler Odoacer.

Theodoric first accepts Odoacer as co-ruler, then kills him.

 

An absolute parallel to the conquest of Byzance by Septimius Severus: two barbarian rulers, a seaside city, a three-year siege.
500: Rome

Theodoric, the king of the Ostrogoths in Italy, visits Rome and stays there for several months. The king's residence is on the Palatine hill and he offers games in the Circus Maximus.

 

Note the interval of 45 years after Genseric's conquest of Rome.

The visit of a barbarian king in Rome is in reality a conquest.

Some similarities to the Trojan legend: Theodoric's palace on a hill near Troy, the games in the Circus Maximus.

536: Neaples

The orthodox Greeks, coming from Sicily, conquer Naples from the Arian Ostrogoths. A trick (an aequeduct) is used to take the well fortified seaside city.

A classic variety of the legend of Troy = Neaples at the foot of Mount Vesuvius, a well fortified seaside city, the invaders coming from an island (Sicily = Tenedus), Greeks versus Trojans, the trick (the Trojan horse = aqua ducta > equus ductus > drawn by a horse).

Here the conquest of the city happens at the beginning of the Trojan (Gothic) war.

545: Rome

The Ostrogoths under king Totila conquer Rome, but can't take Castel Sant'Angelo, defended by Paul from Cilicia (!).

The assailants are then forced to leave the city.

45 years after the Theodoric's visit in Rome

The takings of Rome in 410, 455, 500 and 545 have the same numerological intervals.

A parallel to the German taking of Rome by the Roman-German Emperor Henry IV (1081 - 1084).

Note the presence of Paul the Apostle.

637: Jerusalem

The Arabs or Persians conquer Jerusalem from the Byzantines.

Note the Trojan end number 7.
996: Rome

The young Roman-German Emperor Otto III conquers Rome from the Nationalists under John Crescentius.

Note the similarity with the arrival of Julius Caesar in Rome and of Jesus Christ in Jerusalem.

Otto III is in fact a Christian saviour.

1081 - 1084: Rome

The Roman-German emperor Henry IV assaults Rome for three (!) years and finally conquers the city. However, he can't take Castel Sant'Angelo, where his opponent, Pope Gregory VII - Hildebrand hides. The Normans from Southern Italy liberate the pope, but plunder the city at the same time.

A classic German = barbaric conquest of Rome.

Even the Ostrogoths couldn't take Castel Sant'Angelo in 546.

Septimius Severus (a barbarian) besieges Byzance for three years; the same Theodoric the Great (a barbarian) also besieges Ravenna for three years.

1099: Jerusalem

The army of the Western crusaders conquer Jerusalem after an invasion (or a siege?) of three years.

Bloodshed by the crusaders among the Jews and Arabs follows the conquest.

The Holy City was taken on the 9th of Aw in the Jewish calendar.

A numerological Jesus-conquest: 99 (3 x 33)

A three-year barbarian attack (see Septimius Severus, Theodoric the Great, Henry IV)

Troy: The invaders come from the West, bloodshed follows the conquest.

The date of 9th of Aw: The Jerusalem conquests of 587 AC and 70 AD

1167: Rome

Frederick I Barbarossa conquers Rome, but is forced to leave the city due to pestilence in his army.

Frederick I Barbarossa captured Rome for the first time in 1154.

A clear parallel to the siege of Samaria by the Assyrian king Phul or Tul.

Barbarossa = an Assyrian, a Barbarian

Note the Trojan end number 7.

The pestilence is part of the Trojan matrix.

1187: Jerusalem

Sultan Saladin conquers Jerusalem from the Crusaders after his victory in the battle of Hittim (hebrew: chi'tsim = arrows).

A numerological mirror-image to the fall of Troy in 1187 AC
1202: Constantinople

A western crusader army under Venetian rule conquer in an amphibian operation from Sicily the city of Constantinople and install the Latin Kingdom of the Bosporus.

666 years after the Byzantinian conquest of Naples (also in an amphibian operation from Sicily)

Historians criticized this enterprise as an abuse of the Crusade idea. - In fact it is an authentic conquest of Troy.

1267: Rome and Naples

Charles of Anjou, a brother of the French king, conquers, on agreement with the pope, the cities of Rome and Neaples and annihilates the dynasty of Hohenstaufen in Italy.

100 years after the German conquest of Rome by Frederick I Barbarossa.

The French are the orthodox Byzantinians.

Note that here Rome and Naples are taken simultanously.

Charles of ANJOU (Jou/An > JOSUA) is a parallel to the biblical Josua.

1453: Constantinople

The Turks under their leader Mehmet (Mahomet) II (= Philip II of Macedonia) conquer the city and end the Byzantine Empire.

400 years after the beginning of Hildebrand's activity in Rome.

An absolute parallel to the ancient conquest of Byzantium by the Macedonians.

Like in Troy, the survivors  flee by sea to the West and initiate the Renaissance.

The conquest of Jericho in the biblical book of Josua is maybe a reflection of this event (see the trombones = canons).

1494: Rome

The French King Charles VIII conquers Rome with 8000 Swiss soldiers, in the next year he also conquers Naples.

In Naples the invaders are forced to leave due to pestilence, the famous mal de Naples.

The motive of the attack was the enforcing of throne claims by the house of Anjou to Naples.

This conquest is a prefiguration of the Sacco di Roma in 1527.

1527: Rome

The Germans = Goths (Barbarians) under their leader Georges of Frunsberg conquer and plunder Papal Rome. This is the famous "sacco di Roma".

This event marks the end of the Italian Renaissance.

33 (the age of Jesus) years after the French conquest of Rome in 1494, 360 years afters Barbarossa's conquest of Rome.

Note the Trojan end number 7.

The Sacco di Roma represents a Renaissance variation of Alaric's conquest of Rome in 410 AD.

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(Table 10: Empire separations)


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Table 11: The seven Roman kings

King Parallels
Romulus Quirinus

ROMULUS = ROMA ILJON

QUIRINUS = DIVINUS = divine

Abraham

Constantine the Great

Numa Pompilius Basil the Great

Julius Caesar

Tullus Hostilius

hostilis = hostile

Domitianus
Ancus Marcius Aëtius

Antoninus Pius

Tarquinius Priscus

Tanaquil

TANAQUIL = TRANQUILLUS

Valentinianus III

Galla Placidia

PLACIDUS = TRANQUILLUS

Servius Tullius

SERVIUS = SEVERUS

Septimius Severus

Odoacer

Tarquinius Superbus Dynasty of Ostrogoths after Theodoric

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Table 12: The parallels between the rulers Sulla, Solon, Saul and Diocletian

Sulla Solon Saul Diocletian (Diocles)
SULLAM > SLM = SOLEM = sun SOLON > SLM = SOLEM = sun SAUL > SL(M) = SOLEM = sun DIO/CLEM > SLM = SOLEM = sun
Duration of rule: 21 years Duration of rule: about 20 years Duration of rule: about 20 years Duration of rule: 21 years
Sulla has an irascible character.   Saul has an irascible character. Diocletian has an irascible character.
Sulla is a capable organizer. Solon is a capable organizer.   Diocletian is a capable organizer.
Sulla organizes bloody persecutions of his political opponents, the so-called proscriptions.   Saul organizes bloody purges among religious opponents. Diocletian organizes a bloody persecution of the Christs. These are considered ennemies of the state.
Sulla massacres the priesthood of the hill sanctuary of Praeneste.   Saul massacres the priesthood of the hill sanctuary of Nob. Diocletian destroys the Christian churches.
Sulla inacts legislation, and reforms the constitution. Solon inacts legislation, and reforms the constitution. Saul is the first king of Israel. Diocletian inacts legislation, and reforms the constitution of the Empire.
Lucius Aurelianus, Lucius Sulla's late Roman doppelganger, reforms the monetary system. Solon reforms the monetary system.   Diocletian reforms the monetary system.
Sulla's reforms are in favor of the oligarchy. Solon's reforms are in favor of the oligarchy.   Diocletian's reforms lead to the Dominate.

Sulla resigns voluntarily from power.

Solon resigns voluntarily from power. Saul resigns voluntarily from power. Diocletian resigns volutarily from power.

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Table 13: The parallels between Cicero and Demosthenes

CICERO DEMOSTHENES

CICERONEM = CCR = CHRISTUM, Christ (?)

DEMOSTHENEM = TMST = TMSC = DAMASCENUM, Damascus

Cicero reaches the age of 62.

Demosthenes reaches the age of 62.

Difference between the liftime to Demosthenes ("384 - 322 AC") = 278 years afterwards.

The sum of the digits is 34: Jesus Christ died in his 34th year.

Difference between the lifetime to Cicero ("106 - 43 AC") = 278 years beforehand.

The sum of the digits is 34: Jesus Christ die in his 34th year.

Cicero ist the most famous Roman orator.

Demosthenes is the most famous Greek orator.

Cicero's rhetorical goal: defense of the Roman republic.

Demosthenes' rhetorical goal: defense of the Greek democracy.

Cicero's supervisor and protector: Pompey the Great, then Julius Caesar.

Demosthenes' supervisor and protector: Alexander the Great.

Mortal enemies: Catilina, later Mark Antony.

Mortal enemies: Philipp of Macedon, then Antipater.

Most important speeches:

Speeches against Catiline

Philippics against Mark Antony 

Most important speeches:

Philippics against Philipp of Macedonia,

Olynthic speeches against Philipp of Macedonia

Other enemy: Verres = PRS = Persia = hostile country

Other enemy: Aischines = Asia = hostile country

Reason for Cicero's political acting: threat of Rome by the Catilines = the Catalans.

Reason for Demosthenes' political acting: threat of Athens by the Catalans (in the Greek Middle Ages).

Cicero is forced into exile by the machinations of his political opponent, Clodius. His house is destroyed.

Demosthenes is forced into exile by the machinations of his political opponent, Hypereides. His house is destroyed.

Cicero's triumphant return from exile.

 

Demosthenes' triumphant return from exile.

 

Cicero's rheorical highlight: the speeches against Verres.

Against Verres is a Christian speech.

Demosthenes' rhetorical highlight: the speech On the Crown

On the Crown is a Christian speech.

Cicero's mortal enemy Mark Antony is besieged in MUTINA,  far away from Rome.

Mutina (MT > TM > LM = Lamia).

Demosthenes' mortal enemy Antipater is besieged in LAMIA, far away from Athens.

Lamia (LM > ML > MT = Mutina).

Cicero flees from the henchmen of Mark Antony from Rome to southern Italy = CALABRIA.

Demosthenes flees from the henchmen of Antipater from Athens to the isle of CALAVRIA = CALABRIA.

Cicero dies near Formia in Southern Italy. Demosthenes dies on the Saronic Gulf (SARNO = river in Southern Italy)

Cicero is beheaded because his protector Pompey the Great was beheaded.

Demosthenes poisons himself because his former protector Alexander the Great was poisened.

Cicero dies as a Christian martyr.

Demosthenes dies as a Christian martyr.

Biographer of Cicero is Plutarch.

Biographer of Demosthenes is Plutarch.

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Table 14: The parallels between the Roman emperors Caligula, Caracalla, Elegabalus

Caligula Caracalla Elegabal
Name: Caius Julius Caesar Name: Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Name: Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Bassianus
nickname: CALIGULA

CALICULAM > CLCLM > CRCLM

Alleged meaning: soldier's boot

nickname: CARACALLA

CARACALLAM > CRCLM > CLCLM

Alleged meaning: soldier's boot

nickname: ELEGABAL(US) or HELIOGABALUS

ELEGABALUM > LCPLM > CRCLM

Allegedly a Baal-priest from Emesa in Syria.

Emesa, however, is to be situated in Gaul: Nemausus = Nîmes

  Second nickname: BASSIANUS

BASSIANUS > SEBASTIANUS, Sebastian, a Christian saint

 
Father: German Father: Septimius Severus, a Punic = foreigner Father: Sextus Valerius Marcellus or Caracalla
Mother: Agrippina the elder, an energetic woman Mother: Julia Domna = DOMINA, a dominant woman Mother: Julia Soaemias, a dominant woman
Place of birth: Mainz Place of birth: Lyon Place of birth: Emesa (Syria)
First wife: PAULINA First wife: Flavia PLAUTILLA First wife: PAULA
Caligula came to the throne very young. Caracalla came to the throne young. Elegabalus came to the throne very young.
Caligula was a bad character; as an emperor he was a monster. Caracalla was a bad character; as an emperor he was a monster. Elegabalus was a bad character; as an emperor he was a monster.
Caligula let himself be worshipped as an earthly deity. Caracalla was worshipped as a deity. Elegabalus let himself be worshipped as a sun god.
Duration of rule: 4 years Duration of rule as emperor: 4 years Duration of rule: 4 years
Caligula becomes a victim of a conspiracy. Caracalla becomes a victim of a conspiracy. Elegabalus becomes a victim of a conspiracy.
After Caligula there was anarchy in the Roman empire. After Caracalla there was anarchy in the Roman empire. Elegabalus was an emperor in an anarchic time in the Roman empire.

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Table 15: Severer parallels

Septimius Severus Theoderic the Great Rudolf I of Habsburg
Septimius Severus is a Roman emperor of foreign (African, Punic) origins. Theoderic the Great is an Ostrogoth king in Roman Italy. Rudolf of Habsburg is a Roman emperor of foreign (German) origins.
A caesar of the Severer dynasty was called GETA = Goth. Theoderic is Goth. Rudolf is German = Goth.
Duration of rule: 18 years Duration of rule: 2 x 18 = 36 years Duration of rule: 18 years
Septimius Severus was regarded as a punitive (PUNIC = to punish) ruler. Theoderic the Great was regarded as a punitive ruler. Rudolf of Habsburg was regarded as a punitive ruler.
At the beginning of his reign Septimius Severus besieges and conquers the city of BYZANCE. At the beginning of his reign Theoderic the Great besieges and conquers the city of Ravenna. At the end of his reign Rudolf of Habsburg besieges and conquers the city of Besançon = BYZANCE.
There is a fraternal feud in the house of the Severer between Caracalla and Geta. The latter is murdered. There is a dispute between Theoderic and his co-ruler Odoacer. The latter is murdered. There is a fraternal feud in the House of Habsburg between Johann Parricida and Albrecht. The latter is murdered.
Septimius Severus kills his rival Pescennius (= PERSICUS) Niger. Theoderic kills his rival ODOACER. Rudolf''s rival is OTTOCAR (see: ODOACER) of Bohemia. The latter dies in a battle against the emperor.
Septimius Severus dies in EBURACUM = PRS = PERSIA (York).   Rudolf of Habsburg dies in Speyer (SPR > PRS = PERSIA).
Septimius Severus dies as an old ruler. Theoderic dies as an old ruler. Rudolf dies as an old ruler.
After the Severer dynasty there is anarchy in the Roman Empire. After the death of Theoderic, the Gothic kingdom in Italy sinks into anarchy. Before Rudolf of Habsburg there were anarchic times in the Holy Roman Empire.
  Other analogues of Theoderic: Caracalla, Frederick II of Hohenstaufen  

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Table 16: Vesuvian emperors

Emperor Parallels
Tullus Hostilius

TULL(I)US = TITULLIUS = VESUVIUS

He fights a long war with:

Mettius

Dictator of Alba

After Mettius' death a great eruption (of Mount Vesuvius) destroys Alba = Pompeji or Naples.

Domitian
Galba

GALBA = C(aesar) ALBA

The first short-term emperor in the anarchy between Nero and Vespasianus.

Galba is proclaimed emperor by the army and murderded because of his stinginess.

Vespasianus
Otho

OTHO = (T)TM = TITUM, Titus

Rules for several months, then commits suicide.

Nero

Domitian

Vitellius

VITELLIUS = TITULLIUS

A worse duplicate of Titus: gluttonous and good-for-nothing

He is killed after several months of reign.

Titus
Vespasianus

VESPASIANUS = VESULIANUS, VESUVIANUS

Rules for 10 years.

The first chronicles only recognize one emperor, VESPASIANUS TITUS with a reign of 12 years. The splitting between Vespasianus Titus and Titus Vespasianus came after.

 
Titus

TITUM = TTM > MTT = METTIUM, Mettius

Under his reign, Pompeji is destroyed by an eruption of Mount Vesuvius.

Ruled for 2 years.

 
Domitian

DOMITIANUS = TMT > MTT = METTIUM, Mettius

The last emperor of the Flavians (Vespasianus, Titus)

Ruled for 15 years.

Domitian concentrated his enormous power and demanded the title "Lord and God" (see: Diocletian).

He fights a hard and long war with the Dacians (see: Tullius Hostilius and Mettius). See also Jotham.

Theodosius the Great

Jotham

Valentinian

He ruled for 4 years in the Western Roman Empire.

At the end of his reign he settles near Mount Vesuvius.

Valens

Nero

Totila

TOTILA = TTL = TITULLIUM, Titullius, Titus

Second to the last king of the Ostrogoths, ruled for 10 years.

Totila is killed in the battle of Tadinae (TTM = TTM = TITUM, Titus; also TTM > MTT = METTIUM, Mettius).

Manfred
Teja(s)

TEJAS = PEJAS = POMPEJUS

Last king of the Ostrogoths. Ruled for 2 years.

His is killed and beheaded in a battle at Mount Vesuvius.

Conradin
Manfred

Second to the last king of the Hohenstaufen dynasty.

He ruled for 12 years and was killed in the battle of Benevent against Charles of Anjou.

Totila

Mettius

Conradin

Last king of the Hohenstaufen dynasty. He came to power at the age of sixteen.

Conradin, trying to regain his reign, was defeated in the battle of Tagliacozzo and beheaded in Naples by Charles of Anjou.

"Whom the gods love dies young".

Titus

Teja(s)

Pompey the Great

 

Jotham

God-praising king of Judah

He fights a war against the Ammonites.

Domitian

Lothair of Supplinburg

Lothair of Supplinburg

LOTHAIR = LUTHER (Both came from the same region in Saxony)

also: JOTHAM

Coronation in Rome 1133

Little is known about his reign.

After his death there was an eruption of Vesuvius.

Jotham

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Table 17: The kings of the Ostrogoths

King Parallels
Theoderic the Great

He is from the AMALA-family like his daughter AMALA-su(i)ntha.

Priam

Solomon

Septimius Severus

Caracalla

Frederick II of Hohenstaufen

Rudolf I of Habsburg

Athalarich Attila + Alaric
Amalasu(i)ntha AMALA + SN(C)TM = the saint from the family of Amala
Theodahat Teutates
Vitiges Vologaesus
Ildibad Hildebrand
Erarich Alarich
Totila

In Italian: Baduila

Titus

Balbinus

Manfred

Teja(s) Pompey the Great

Titus

Konradin

The list of the Ostrogoth kings according to Petavius (Petavius, III, Successiones, 183):

Odoacer, Theoderic, Athalaric, Theodahat, Vitiges, Theodobaldus, Araricus, Totila, Tejas, Narses


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Table 18: Solomonic rulers

Solomon

Hebrew: shlo'mo = peaceful ruler (see Frederick)

King of united Israel

Duration of reign: about 38 years

Under his reign Israel expands its borders to its largest extent.

Great constructor: the temple in Jerusalem

Solomon focusses a great deal on jurisprudence ("solomonic judgement").

Solomon ascended to the throne by eliminating rivals (see Constantin the Great, Theoderic, Frederick II. of Hohenstaufen).

He was married to a daughter of the pharao, but had a great number of concubines and mistresses.

Solomon had a special relationship with the queen of SABA (see Frederick II, Henry VIII)

There were several uprisings in his kingdom at the end of his rule (see Trajan, Hadrian, Justinian, Frederick II)

Solomon dies a natural death.

After his death his reign is separated into Israel (Samaria) and Judah (Jerusalem).

Manasseh

MANASSEH = MNS > (R)MNS = ROMANUS

Duration of reign: 55 years

King of Judah in Jerusalem

Great constructor: new wall around the city of Jerusalem.

Mannasseh was not orthodox, he consulted fortune tellers and magicians.

Manasseh extinguished a riot in Jerusalem (see Justinian).

The king is captured by the Assyrians. After he had offered apology to his atheism, he is relased and returned to Jerusalem.

He dies a natural death.

Trajan

TRAJANUS = TROJANUS

Duration of reign: 17 or 19 years

Trajan and Hadrian altogether have a Solomonic duration of reign of 38  years.

Trajan emphasizes jurisprudence.

Under his reign the Roman Empire expands its borders to its largest extent.

Trajan was a great builder: the harbor of Ostia, the Forum of Trajan and the column of Trajan in Rome.

His architect is the Syrian, Apollonius of Damascus.

Trajan tolerated the Christians.

Trajan extinguishes an uprising of the Jews in Palestine ("115 AD".

He dies a natural death.

Hadrian

HADRIANUS = h/TROJANUS

Duration of reign: 21 years

Trajan and Hadrian altogether have a Solomonic duration of reign of 38  years.

Hadrian emphasizes jurisprudence.

Hadrian was a great builder: Hadrian's villa in Tivoli, the Olympieion in Athens.

Hadrian mourns over the death of his predilected lover ANTINOUS (see Frederick II: ENZIO).

Hadrian extinguishes an uprising of the Jews in Palestine ("133 - 135 AD").

Hadrian was suspicious and had executed several dignitaries (see Theoderic, Frederick II).

He dies a natural death.

Justinian

Latin IUS = law

Duration of reign: 38 years

Greatest ruler of the Byzantine Empire. He conquers back Tunis and Italy.

Justinian emphasizes jurisprudence: Codex Justinianus

Justinian is orthodox, he annihilates the Arian heresy in Italy.

His wife Theodosia, however, lives a lascivious life.

Justinian is a great builder: Hagia Sophia in Constantinople.

His architect: Anthemius von Tralleis from Syria (see Trajan).

Justinian extinguishes the Nika-riot in Constantinople (see Manasseh).

He also extinguishes an uprising of the Jews and Samaritanes in Palestine.

Justinian dies a natural death.

After his death the Byzantine Empire declines.

Frederick II of Hohenstaufen

FREDERICK = peaceful ruler

Duration of reign: 38 years (from "1212 to 1250")

King of Naples and Sicily, German king, later ruler of the Holy Roman Empire and King of Jerusalem (see Manasseh)

He ascended to the throne by eliminating pretenders like Otto IV and Philip of Swabia.

Frederick's nickname GATTIN = Goth

Frederick II marked the height of the Hohenstaufen dynasty.

Frederick II is regarded as a great builder: Castel del Monte in Apulia, Tower gate at the Volturno river

Frederick II was not orthodox, he overthrew the pope.

He was married to ELISABETH of England, but had a lot of concubines and mistresses (see Solomon, Henry VIII).

Frederick II. had a special interest in jurisprudence (see Solomon, Justinian, Trajan, Hadrian).

His predilected son ENZIO dies in enemy captivity (see Hadrian's ANTINOUS).

Frederick II resettled foreign peoples (see Theoderic).

At the end of his life Frederick II became suspicious and executed his chancelor PETER of Vineis (see Theoderic: BOETHIUS, Hadrian, Henry VIII of England).

Frederick II dies a natural death.

Sudden fall of the Hohenstaufen dynasty in Italy.

Suleiman the Magnificent

SULEIMAN = SLM = SOLOMON

Duration of reign: 46 years, "1520 - 1566"

Under his rule the Ottoman Empire expanded to its greatest extent.

Suleiman paid special attention to law.

He had many concubines. His wife, Roxolane, was from abroad (see Solomon, Manasseh, Frederick II).

Great builder: Suleiman mosque in Constantinople.

His architect: Mimar Sinan

Suleiman's contemporary in Western Europe is Emperor Charles V.

There were sedition and uprisings at the end of his reign (see Solomon).

He dies a natural death.

Henry VIII of England

Duration of reign: 38 years ("1509 - 1547")

Greatest ruler of England.

Henry builds a lot of fortresses.

Henry was not orthodox, he breaks with Rome.

Henry had a tumultuous love life (see Solomon, Frederick II of Hohenstaufen).

Henry was suspicious; he executed his lord chancellor Thomas More (see Hadrian, Theoderic, Frederick II of Swabia).

His daughter's name was Elisabeth (see Solomon, Frederick II)

Henry dies a natural death.